This article is machine-translated by Google.
What, no New Year's Eve this year? I believe many people approaching the New Year only to find that "severe" problems, does the 2012 end of the world? Of course a joke, but then again, we should also have the impression, not because the last New Year's Eve in 2006, now is not too far away. To ask why, we will say that this calendar is provided, but really people understand lunar calendar has really numbered. I'm trying to lead us through this article from scratch, our understanding of the Chinese lunar calendar.
Six ancient calendar
Lunar calendar, also known as "Lunar", commonly known as "lunar" or "lunar calendar." The vast majority of Chinese traditional festivals, such as Spring Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival, Double Ninth Festival, are based on lunar calculations. Lunar calendar, by definition, but once there the summer calendar, one of the "six ancient calendar" ranks. "Six ancient calendar" is the legendary six ancient calendar, namely "lunar calendar", "Yin calendar", "Zhou Li", "Lu Li," "Yellow Emperor calendar," "Zhuanxu calendar." Wherein the "Yellow Emperor calendar" and "Lu Li," due to the lack of historical documents, have been difficult to test, and "lunar", "Yin calendar", "Zhou Li" the historical evidence.
Since the calendar comes to worship Nongsang, is patriarchal event, so every change of government, the calendar always innovation. "Lunar", "Yin calendar", "Zhou Li" on the calendar are the Shang and Zhou. The main difference between the Yin and Zhou Xia three calendar year is different months starting January, that is, different month. "Records ‧ almanac" cloud "XIA In the first month, with December being Yin, Zhou Zheng in November." That is for the month of January to the lunar calendar, Yin Li ugliness twelve of the first month, weekly calendar in November for the first month. In other words, Shang and Zhou calendar month a month earlier than the former.
When it comes to the lunar calendar and weekly calendar, I had to mention "the Book of Songs" in a famous article - " July ": Meteors in July, September granted clothing. A day of fever hair, the second day of Chestnut Lie. No clothes no brown, how old soldier? On day three of the plow, four-day lift toes. I woman with child, carry food to laborers in the field Peter acres south. Tian overseer to hi.
"July" is the "Book of ‧ MAK" the longest poem, vividly describes a farmer working life throughout the year, and referred to two different calendars among its biggest draws or chant psalms. Above paragraph in "July" "September," "one day" "day two" "three-day" "four day" several different times, wherein "July", "September" refers to the lunar calendar in July and September, and "one day", "day two", "three-day", "four of the day" is a weekly calendar in one, two, three, April, corresponding to the lunar calendar in November, December, January and February. "July" demonstrated at least a week and lunar calendar are reliable, but not later entrusted ancient forgery.
Evolution of the lunar calendar
Six ancient calendar of "Zhuanxu calendar" is the legend of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors Emperors of the Year, three hundred six days and the 15th quarter of the year, taking nineteen years seven leap method can be described as the traditional Chinese calendar the first prototype. Zhuanxu calendar month on the basis of calendar weeks ahead of schedule in January, starting in October for the years of the lunar calendar. In the Qin Dynasty and the early Han Dynasty, it has been the official calendar Zhuanxu calendar. In Emperor developed a "calendar was in the beginning," the beginning of the year back to the lunar calendar in January, and since then the ministries calendar "month" will not happen again been changed, which is why in modern times with "lunar calendar" be said on behalf of the traditional Chinese calendar. From the Han Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty a thousand years, appeared on dozens of Chinese history almanac, many of whom have a significant impact created, but almost always on the basis of past life on the amendment. We use today, "lunar" is actually compiled by the Ming Dynasty Chongzhen "when constitutional calendar," also known as "Chongzhen almanac", this almanac as the official calendar throughout the Ming and Qing dynasties, until after the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912 was only Gregorian calendar replaced.
As a reminder, at the beginning of the article mentioned below and "lunar" "Calendar" "Lunar" refers to use today's "constitution when the calendar." Although the "lunar calendar" in the history of today's "calendar when the constitution" has been very different, but in order to avoid confusion, we still try to use the "lunar calendar" to represent said.
We'll lunar generally known as "lunar", but in fact is not true lunar calendar lunar calendar, the real lunar calendar is in full accordance to the provisions of the moon phase, month 29.530588 days a year there are 12 lunar months, about 354 days . Only now commonly used calendar Islamic calendar is a true lunar calendar. With respect to the lunar calendar, the Gregorian calendar is based on changes in the cycle of the sun direct point to develop, that is the Gregorian calendar year, equal to the length of a tropical year, known as the "Year of the real" average 365.242 days. We said, "calendar" (Gregorian calendar) is a kind of the Gregorian calendar.
Chinese lunar calendar is a purely lunar calendar is neither nor a pure Gregorian calendar, but a "lunisolar calendar." Lunisolar calendar feature is not only to ensure compliance with the monthly cycle of the moon phase changes, but also to ensure a length equal to the average annual return on. Lunar calendar is 30 days Otsuki, Satsuki 29 days, a monthly average of 29.5 days, consistent with the lunar month cycle-average 353-355 days, 383-385 days for leap years, an average of 365.247 days every nineteen years, almost equal to a tropical year.
According to research lunisolar may have originated in the Shang period, because people attach great importance to the Shang divination ritual requires monthly calendar and coincides with its highly developed agricultural civilization must depend precise solar calendar, so they had achieved by intercalation lunisolar technology.
Round solar terms
Most of the world is the Gregorian calendar and the lunar calendar and lunisolar less. The main reason is that the position of the sun determines the temperature of the earth, light, monsoon and other factors, have a very significant impact on human activities. By contrast the average person unless it is divination ritual activity, will not be too concerned about the phases of the moon. China has always been a simple and ancient farming civilization, for accurate measurement of the farming season is urgently needed, according to the Gregorian calendar and therefore ancestors invented the method of calculation of a "24 solar terms" in.
Round solar terms in the Gregorian calendar originated in ancient sundial record in the "day length to" and "Day to short," and then with "Equinox" and "Equinox", has been developed for the 24 solar terms date. Each of the 24 solar solar terms corresponding to the sun on the ecliptic 15 degrees, can be subdivided in twelve Feasts and gas-two:
|month||Feasts||In the air|
|First month||beginning of spring||rainwater|
|April||beginning of summer||Xiaoman|
|May||Grain in Ear||Summer Solstice|
|July||beginning of autumn||Chushu|
|August||White dew||Autumnal Equinox|
|October||beginning of winter||Snow|
|Winter months||Snow||Winter Solstice|
|Twelfth lunar month||Osamu||Big Chill|
Nineteen years seven leap
We know that a lunar month is 29.53 days, twelve months a year is 354.36 days, and a year-old is actually 365.24 days. This down year lunar and solar calendar has 10.88 days gap, how to erase this gap? Uses a lunar calendar 'intercalation "method, in one sentence, that is," nineteen years seven leap. " Lunar calendar every 19 years there are seven leap month, that is 19 years and 12 years is 12 months a year, seven years 13 months per year, a total of 19 years is 235 months, 6939.69 days. According to the Gregorian calendar, 19 years a total of 6939.60 days, with only a difference of about 0.09 lunar calendar days, so take advantage of the ancients "nineteen years seven leap" approach to ensure that the balance of the lunar calendar and the Gregorian calendar.
The lunar calendar intercalation rule in the end what is it? 24 solar from this method of calculating start. Round solar terms with the Gregorian calendar close fit, an average of 15.22 days interval between each two solar terms. We can see in the Gregorian calendar 24 solar time is relatively fixed, the second half of the month, respectively, and a throttle in a gas. In the lunar calendar is not the same, because only 29.53 days a month, the first day of a month is assumed that the gas day, then the next month appear throttle and the gas will be extended backwards 0.91 days, 32.45 months there will be a month without the gas. Lunar calendar on the provisions of "no gas in the month is a leap month" every 32.45 months so there is a leap month, and quite a leap month every 2.70 years, generally is "nineteen years seven leap."
For example, May 20, 2012 is the lunar calendar April 30, the day was Xiaoman in the air. Next month on the 16th is Grain in Ear solar term, but not in the air, so this month is called leap in April.
Read here, I believe you already know why the annual Spring Festival earlier always crossed between the Gregorian calendar in mid-January to late February, the. But I want to remind that this is only the lunar intercalation simplest description, many of the details and additional rules did not elaborate, and therefore may encounter a "double the gas" "false leap month" "Winter Solstice is not in November," etc. special phenomenon, such as " 2033 problem ."
Why did not this year, New Year's Eve?
Let's answer at the beginning of the question: "Why is this year not New Year's Eve?" We know that a lunar month is 29.53 days, but the number of days calendar month must be an integer, so the lunar calendar used method of alternating size monthly to ensure that the average per months approaching lunar month cycle. Lunar calendar provisions Otsuki 30 days, Satsuki 29 days, with a new moon is the first day of the day, if the time of the new moon is noon, so this month is Satsuki, if the time of the new moon at midnight, then this January is a big month. Therefore, there is no New Year's Eve is not surprising, but this year is the twelfth lunar month is Satsuki Bale.